Everything you need to know about Tech

Tag: IP address

​All you need to know about the Ping command

It is small and very useful. There is a lot to know about the Ping command so let’s get started!

What is the Ping command?

Ping is a command line utility. It allows testing the reachability of the devices in a network. It is a helpful computer network tool to fix connectivity problems within networks. Any operating system (OS) with network connectivity should offer you the choice to use the Ping command.

How does Ping command work?

It sends a little data packet called ICMP echo request (Internet Control Message Protocol) to a specific host. The data packet includes a timestamp and a unique number that identifies it. The objective is that once this packet is received by the targeted host, it answers with an ICMP echo reply containing the same timestamp and identification number of the original data packet (ICMP echo request).

At the beginning of the process, when the we run the command by the sender host, it records the time when the echo request is sent. Then, it has to wait for the answer (echo reply). When it arrives, the Ping command calculates the round-trip time or RTT and shows it to you. RTT is the result of subtracting the echo request’s timestamp from the echo reply’s timestamp.

By default, the Ping command is set to send four data packets of 56 bytes each. But you can define, through the command, the number of packets to be sent, their size, the interval of time between them, and the destination IP address or hostname.

What can I use the Ping command for?

​Testing reachability

You can use this command to check if the Internet connection is working or not and if a device, website, application, or another Internet service is reachable or not.

​Monitoring the performance of a network

If you use the command in a script to ping a host from time to time and you register the RRT values, this information will allow you to evaluate the performance of your network. You can identify patterns related to network latency.

​Testing latency

The command measures the round-trip time (RRT) of messages sent to a specific host. Well, this is what you need to have a good reference of the general latency on your network. For instance, high RRT values can mean that the host’s location is far away or an issue within the network’s infrastructure.


Connectivity issues are not rare in networks. If you are having this problem with a host, this command helps you to check if it is reachable and to identify communication delays. If the host is not reachable, this can mean either the host is down or there is an error in the configuration of the network.


This is all you need to know about the Ping command. The next step is to start using it! It is the best way to feel its benefits and master its use!

DNS records: Top 5 Most Popular Types

Every DNS administrator needs to know the different DNS records. There are dozens of sorts, but we will focus on the top 5 most popular. Let’s start.

A record

We will start with an A or Address record. Yes, this is the most fundamental and utilizable DNS record type. It maps an FQDN (fully qualified domain name) to an IPv4 address (IPv6 address for AAAA record). Most people are familiar with a site’s name (hostname) when they desire to visit it. But the address is what they truly need to locate. The visitor’s browser will make numerous requests to various DNS servers until it finds the A record that answers the query. When it receives it back, the browser is already aware of the site’s location and is able to load it.

PTR record

The PTR, or “pointer,” DNS record type associates an IP (IPv4 or IPv6) address in the DNS with a domain name. It’s known as a DNS reverse lookup. So, PTR is the opposite of A record.

We utilize it to establish credibility and certify that a given domain name (hostname) is indeed connected to a particular IP address. As a result, it is viewed as a crucial component when setting up effectively functioning outgoing mail servers. The emails you send will be immediately identified as spam and rejected if you don’t have this DNS record or if you misconfigured it. Absolutely no one wants it. As a result, you should be alert and adjust things appropriately.

SOA record

SOA records are used to identify a domain name’s corresponding authoritative name server. In addition, because they contain data about the zone and the domain itself, such as the refresh rate of both (updates), the number of times servers should wait before the next refresh, the administrator’s contact information, etc., they also serve an administrative function.

MX record

An MX record directs users to the domain’s mail-receiving server. The mail transfer agent (MTA) requests the MX records from the recipient domain’s DNS when a user sends an email message. The hostname or names of the mail servers that accept email for that domain are provided by the MX record. A Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) connection is then established between the transmitting MTA and one of the listed hosts.

MX records are a best practice even if they are not currently needed. For example, mail sent from a domain with no MX record may frequently be blocked as SPAM by a mail server in charge of accepting email, preventing email delivery.

TXT record

Although the TXT record is only a plain text file, it has numerous uses. Sources outside the field can use the text inside as support. For example, use it to send a message to a different DNS administrator, validate the domain name, a service (such as Google, Microsoft, or another), or a process of encryption.

Furthermore, there are different types of TXT records:

  • DKIM record (Domain Keys Identified Mail)
  • DMARC (Domain Based Message Authentication Reporting and Conformance) record
  • SPF (Sender Policy Framework) record


You will be directed to DNS if you manage a network or run an online business. Additionally, DNS records will develop into valuable tools. So, it will be good for you to know them. Luck!

Round Robin DNS: How does it work?

There’s a common goal all online business people and web managers share: reaching as much traffic as possible. But sometimes, while pursuing this objective, people forget a key next step. You have to be prepared to handle big traffic loads. Otherwise, your current system can be easily saturated and crashed.

Does it sound hard? Well, there are different technologies and strategies you can use. Today, we will talk about Round Robin DNS.

Round Robin DNS: Definition

Round Robin DNS is a DNS solution to distribute the traffic among different servers. It allows the redirection of traffic to other servers to prevent stress points and overloads for your servers. If you are familiar with the concept of load balancing, well, this is one option to do it.

Round Robin DNS: How does it work?

To distribute the traffic, Round Robin DNS works by following the principle of rotation. It also considers the moment a user query is gotten and the number of available servers you have. Briefly talking, it creates a queue of servers, so every time a DNS query arrives, Round Robin DNS gives the IP address of the next server in the queue to serve the query.

Let’s go into detail. Deploying Round Robin DNS, you will have several or many A or AAAA records with different IP addresses. Every IP address will be linked to a specific server containing a copy of your content. Users wanting to visit your service (web hosting or another) will send a DNS query through their browser. This last will trigger the DNS resolution process, and the authoritative nameserver in charge of the A or AAAA records will give the next record (A or AAAA), based on the order of the queue and respecting the order in which the DNS queries were received. This is how the principle of rotation is used.

When every IP address finishes its task, it will get back to the queue, taking place exactly behind the IP address that arrived before it.


In case you have 3 servers, the first user’s query will be directed to server 1. The second user’s query is to server 2. The third user’s query is to server 3. Then, the fourth user’s query will go to server 1, the fifth user’s query to server 2, and so on.

Using it, this cycle it creates will involve the authoritative nameserver and other servers that host your content, meaning your website, service, or application. The more available servers you have, the more IP addresses working for the same domain.

This is an option to manage traffic efficiently, so your network does not get saturated. As a result, the general performance of your business gets enhanced, too and visitors enjoy a better experience. Not bad at all, right?


As you see, Round Robin DNS is a very convenient load balancing solution, easy to install, and based on a simple but effective principle that can make a big difference for your domain. Managing traffic can be easier than you thought!

IPv4 explained for beginners

IPv4 – Explanation

The fourth version of the Internet Protocol, or IPv4, is a popular protocol for exchanging data over various networks. Internet Protocol version 4 is a connectionless protocol that operates in packet-switched layer networks like Ethernet. Instead, it gives each network device a special identifier to create a logical connection between them. There are both manual and automatic configurations for configuring IP version 4 with various devices, depending on the type of network.

What does IPv4’s future hold?

The digital industry has advanced significantly since the introduction of IPv4 in the 1980s. Additionally, the number of people utilizing one or more gadgets has significantly expanded. There are approximately 8 billion individuals in the modern world, yet IPv4 and its 32-bit addresses can accommodate only a little more than 4 billion.

Thus, the issue is now apparent. Network managers are forced to reuse IP addresses since there aren’t enough of them available. They must also properly manage and maintain their IP address pool.

Their cost rises as a result of the scarcity of IPv4 addresses. Therefore, the newest IPv6 version is becoming increasingly popular, primarily because of this.

How can you check the IPv4?

Your IP address can be easily found. An IP address that regularly changes is said to be dynamic. You can find out your computer’s IP address by doing the procedures listed below:


Enter cmd in the Start menu of Windows to open the Command Prompt. Next, enter the command ipconfig into the Command Prompt. Your IP address will be among the information provided by the program.


Launch the Terminal application. Utilize the macOS Terminal command curl to obtain your public IP address. To discover the private Internet Protocol version 4 address, use ipconfig getifaddr en0.


Open a terminal window to get start. You can use the three commands “hostname -I,” “ip addr,” and “ifconfig” to verify Internet Protocol version 4. These commands all produce the IPv4 address as a result.


Because there are fewer numbers in constructing IPv4 addresses, they are more straightforward. On the other hand, the format of the new IPv6 version is more complex. This is crucial when it comes to physical labor. Human error is substantially less likely with IPv4.

A substantially wider range of compatibility is available with Internet Protocol version 4. This version of Internet Protocol works flawlessly on both outdated and contemporary computers. On the other hand, the vast majority of current technology gadgets do not support IP address version 6.


We might conclude that IPv4 made up the majority of the current Internet traffic because it was the first Internet Protocol version to receive widespread adoption. Maybe IPv6 stands for the present and IPv4 for the past. We’ll begin formally greeting the new one and gradually bidding the old one farewell.